You Are At The Archives for May 2012

Wednesday, May 30, 2012 in , , , , , , , , ,

Win-Win Spiral Model

Boehm and Ross (1989) extended the original spiral model by including considerations related to stakeholders. The win-win spiral model uses the theory W management approach, which requires that for a project to be a success, the system’s key stakeholders must all be winners. The way to achieve this win-win condition is to use the negotiation based approach to define a number of additional steps of the normal spiral development cycle. The additional steps are the following:
• Identify next-level stakeholders.
• Identify stakeholders’ win conditions.
• Reconcile win conditions.
• Establish next-level objectives, constraints, and alternatives.
• Evaluate product and process alternatives.
• Resolve risks.
• Define the next-level of product and process, including partitions.
• Validate product and process definitions.
• Review and commit.
The advantages from a win-win spiral model is the collaborative involvement of stakeholders that results in less rework and maintenance, early exploration of alternative architecture plans, faster development, and greater stakeholder satisfaction upfront.



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Characteristics of software

software is a logical rather than a physical system element. Therefore, software has characteristics that are considerably different from those of hardware. Some of the major differences are the following:
1.software is developed or engineered, it is not manufactured.
• The concept of raw material is non existent here. It is better visualised as a process, rather than a product.
• The human element is extremely high in software development, compared to manufacturing.
• The development productivity is highly uncertain, even with standard products, varying greatly with skill of the developers.
• The development tools, techniques, standards, and procedures vary widely across and within an organisation.
• Quality problems in software development are very different from those in manufacturing. Whereas the manufacturing quality characteristics can be objectively specified and easily measured, those in the software engineering environment are rather elusive.
2. Software development presents a job shop environment.
• Here each product is custom-built and hence unique.
• It cannot be assembled from existing components.
• All the complexities of a job shop are present here.
• Human skill, the most important element in a job shop, is also the most important element in software development.
3. Time and effort for software development are hard to estimate.
• Interesting work gets done at the expense of dull work, and documentation, being a dull work, gets the least priority.
• Doing the job in a clever way tends to be a more important consideration than getting it done adequately, on time, and at reasonable cost.
• Programmers tend to be optimistic, not realistic, and their time estimates for task completion reflect this tendency.
• Programmers have trouble communicating.
4. User requirements are often not conceived well enough; therefore a piece of software undergoes many modifications before it is implemented satisfactorily.
5. There are virtually no objective standards or measures by which to evaluate the progress of software development.
6. Testing a software is extremely difficult, because even a modest-sized program can contain enough executable paths so that the process of testing each path though the program can be prohibitively expensive.
7. Software does not wear out.
• Software normally does not lose its functionality with use.
• It may lose its functionality in time, however, as the user requirements change.
• When defects are encountered, they are removed by rewriting the relevant code, not by replacing it with available code. That means that the concept of replacing the defective code by spare code is very unusual in software development.
• When defects are removed, there is likelihood that new defects are introduced.
8. Hardware has physical models to use in evaluating design decisions. Software design evaluation, on the other hand, rests on judgment and intuition.
9. Hardware, because of its physical limitations, has practical bound on complexity because every hardware design must be realised as a physical implementation. Software, on the other hand, can be highly complex while still conforming to almost any set of needs.
10. There are major differences between the management of hardware and software projects. Traditional controls for hardware projects may be counterproductive in software projects. For example, reporting percent completed in terms of Lines of Code can be highly misleading. It is now time to give a few definitions. The next section does this.

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Software Crisis.


During the late 1960s and 1970s, there was an outcry over an impending software crisis. The symptoms of such a crisis surfaced then and are present even today. The symptoms are the following:
1. Software cost has shown a rising trend, outstripping the hardware cost. Boehm (1976, 1981) indicated that since the fifties, the percentage of total cost of computation attributable to hardware has dramatically reduced and that attributable to software has correspondingly increased. Whereas software cost was only a little over 20% in the 1950’s, it was nearly 60% in the 1970’s, and about 80% in the 1980’s. Today, the computer system that we buy as ‘hardware’ has generally cost the vendor about three times as much for the software as it has for the hardware (Pressman 1992).
2. Software maintenance cost has been rising and has surpassed the development cost. Boehm (1981) has shown that the bulk of the software cost is due to its maintenance rather than its development.
3. Software is almost always delivered late and exceeds the budgeted cost, indicating time and
cost overruns.
4. It lacks transparency and is difficult to maintain.
5. Software quality is often less than adequate.
6. It often does not satisfy the customers.
7. Productivity of software people has not kept pace with the demand of their services.
8. Progress on software development is difficult to measure.
9. Very little real-world data is available on the software development process. Therefore, it has not been possible to set realistic standards.
10. How the persons work during the software development has not been properly understood. One of the earliest works that explained to a great extent the causes of software crisis is by Brooks (1972). We shall get in the next section a glimpse of the work of Brooks.



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What is Software?


We are living in an information society where most people are engaged in activities connected with either producing or collecting data, or or gangling, processing and storing data, and retrieving and disseminating stored information, or using such information for decision making. Great developments have taken place in computer  hardware technology, but the key to make this technology useful to humans lies with the software technology. In recent years software industry is exhibiting the highest growth rate throughout the world, India being no exception. Software is the general term for information that's recorded onto some kind of medium. For example, when you go to the video store and rent or buy a tape or DVD, what you're really getting is the software that's stored on that tape or disk. Your VCR or DVD player are hardware devices that are capable of reading the software from a tape or disk and projecting it onto your TV screen, in the form of a movie. Your  computer  is a hardware device that reads software too. Most of the software on your computer  comes in the form of programs. A program consists of instructions that tell the  computer  what to do, how to behave. Just as there are thousands of albums you can buy on CD for your stereo, and thousands of movies you can buy to play on your VCR or DVD player, there are thousands of programs that you can buy to run on your  computer . When you buy a computer, you don't automatically get every program produced by every software company in the world. You usually get some programs. For example, when you buy a computer it will probably have an operating system already installed on it. If you do purchase a specific program, it would be to perform some specific task. For example, you might use a graphics program to touch up photos, or you might use a word processing program to write text. You're using your Web browser program right now to read this text. Just as there are umpteen different brands of toothpaste, there are umpteen different brands of word processing programs, graphics programs, and Web browsers.



Tuesday, May 29, 2012 in , ,

How to choose the best Sound Card?

This is the  computer  part that is in charge of processing audio data and output to the speakers. A good sound card is necessary for a  computer  to play quality music. If you are a heavy multimedia user or gamer, this is one of the  computer  parts where you need to invest in. Sound cards can be a great purchase for sound enthusiasts and hardcore gamers. They help eliminate interference and similar problems that degrade sound quality. They can also help create a more realistic 3D audio environment.


The potential sound output is also much greater, with a wider and richer frequency range. Sound cards such as the ASUS Xonar Essence STX, ASUS Xonar Essence ST and Creative Sound Baslter X-Fiwill truly deliver when it comes to overall sound quality. If you are wondering how to get the best possible sound out of your  computer , or if you want to know what the advantages of sound cards over onboard sound are, check out our learning center articles on sound cards. In this review site, you'll find side-by-side comparisons and detailed reviews of the best PCI and PCIe audio cards.

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How to change the CPU case, Monitor and Controls?


The  computer  case is a container where all the  computer  parts are assembled and contained. There are various types of cases for different type of motherboard size it is also known as form factor. How big a case is will depend on your motherboard size and the number of computer hardware you are putting in.  computer  monitor receives information from the graphics card and display them on the screen. There are mainly two types of monitor used for  computer  system, CRT and LCD monitor. CRT monitor used to be the standard for  computer  monitor. However, with the advancement in technology, LCD monitor has gradually replaced its CRT counterpart to become the choice for most  computer . The keyboard and the mouse are the only devices that allow you to interact with the  computer . Not all keyboards and mouse are made the same. Some of them are specially designed for gamer. Find out more in the keyboard quide and mouse quide.

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How to choose the best Hard drive?


Find out the various type of hard drive and which type is most suitable for your system. A hard drive is a storage place where you install and store all your programs and data. Generally, the bigger the capacity, the more data you can store. The main difference between the hard drive and  computer  RAM is that computer RAM contains only volatile data, which means all the data is lost when the power is switched off while hard drive can be used to store permanent data. These solid state drives are the ones to beat in the SSD world at the moment. The last generation SSDs were capable of 280/270MB/s but the new drives are capable of 550-500MB/s, in other words, double the speed of last generation. This equates to sub -10 second Windows load times and also sub-5 second game load times. That's blazingly fast performance with no bottleneck. Expected data speeds of 1Gb/s+ once a RAID array is set up. 

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How to choose the best Graphics Card?


A gaming  computer  must have a good graphics card. This guide shows you how to find the best graphics card for your gaming  computer . As the name implies, it is a card that processes graphical data. Upon receiving instruction from the motherboard and CPU, it will process the graphical data and display them on the monitor. There is a wide range of graphics card in the market, all with different processing capability. Generally, the processing capability is proportional to the quality of the images produced on the monitor. The better the graphics card, the higher quality is the images shown. For gamer, investing in a good graphics card is a must.

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How to choose the best RAM?

RAM (Random access memory),  computer  RAM is one of the most crucial components of a  computer . Without this component the  computer  speed will be crawling like a tortoise.  computer  RAM acts as a facilitation for the motherboard and the processor. Its main function is to provide a temporary space for data to be stored. When a  computer  first starts up The system will load information from the storage drive into the RAM. At any point of time when the system needs information It will just access the RAM to retrieve the data it needs. 

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How to choose the best CPU?

If you will choose a best CPU, then your  computer  can run like a Ferrari. CPU is the brain of the computer . Its main task is to handle all the heavy arithmetic and logic calculation. This piece of  computer  hardware determines  the speeds of your  computer . The higher the speed of the CPU, The faster is your gaming  computer . Game  computer  have high end graphics cards processors and more then enough ram. All the components needed to enhance your gaming experience. When you are considering a gaming computer  carefully evaluate your needs. So you can get a desktop that will fit your gaming style and budget.

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How to choose the best motherboard?

Motherboard is the heart of the  computer  and the one piece of equipment that integrates all the  computer  component together. Choosing a good motherboard is essential to make sure every parts run smoothly. Because it is the most important  computer  hardware of all as it is the part that integrates all the other gaming hardware together. Its main job is facilate the processor, pass instruction and coordinate the various  computer  parts. How good a motherboard is will determine how capable the computer is in performing tasks. So most importantly you have need to choose the best  computer  for build a gaming  computer .

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How to build a gaming Computer?

It is too easy for everyone. Everyone can build a gaming  computer . If you want to build your gaming computer, then you do not need to have a  computer  degree or be a gaming computer expert to build one. From here you will get a lot of information to build your gaming  computer . Building your own computer  is much better and cheaper than buying a brand new  computer  off  the shelf. Your computer  retailer will never want you to learn the skill of building your own  computer , as that means no more sales for them. Stop paying high price for your gaming  computer  . Just need to follow these rules, you will be building your own gaming  computer  in no time. For building a gaming  computer  you have need to change some parts and how can you change that. Those information's are-

1. How to choose the best CPU?
2. How to choose the best motherboard?
3. How to choose the best RAM?
4. How to choose the best Graphics Card? 

Saturday, May 12, 2012 in , ,

Turion X2 Ultra

Turion X2 Ultra is the first processor family from AMD solely for the mobile platform, based on the Athlon 64 architecture with some specific architectural enhancements similar to current Phenom processors aimed at lower power consumption and longer battery life. The Turion Ultra processor was released as part of the Puma mobile platform in June 2008.
The Turion X2 Ultra is a dual-core processor to be fabricated on 65 NM technology using 300 mm SOI wafers. It will support DDR2-800 SO-Dim Ms and features a DRAM preference to improve performance and a mobile-enhanced north bridge. Each processor core comes with 1 MiB L2 cache for a total of 2 MiB L2 cache for the entire processor. This is double the L2 cache found on the current Turion 64 X2 processor. Clock rates range from 2.0 GHz to 2.4 GHz, and thermal design power will range from 32 watts to 35 watts.
The Turion X2 Ultra processor, unlike earlier Turion, implements three voltage planes: one for the north bridge and one for each core. This, along with multiple phase-locked loops, allows one core to alter its voltage and operating frequency independently of the other core, and independently of the North Bridge. Indeed, in a matter of microseconds, the processor can switch to one of 8 frequency levels and one of 5 voltage levels. By adjusting frequency and voltage during use, the processor can adapt to different workloads and help reduce power consumption. It can operate as low as 250 MHz to conserve power during light use.
Additionally, the processor features deep sleep state C3, deeper sleep state C4, and Hyper Transport 3.0 up to 2.6 GHz, or up to 41.6 GB/s bandwidth per link at 16-bit link width and dynamic scaling of HT link width down to 0-bit in both directions from and to the chipset for four different usage scenarios. It also implements multiple on-die thermal sensors through integrated SMBUS interface with additional MEMHOT signal sent from embedded controller to the processor, and reduces memory temperature.
The Turion X2 Ultra processor uses the same socket S1 as its predecessor, Turion 64 X2, but the pin out is different. It is designed to work with the RS780M chip set.
Given the above enhancements on the architecture, the cores were minimally modified and are based on the K8 instead of the K10 micro architecture. AMD Fellow Maurice Stein man has said the cores are almost transistor-for-transistor identical to those found in the 65 NM Turion 64 X2 processors.

Friday, May 11, 2012 in ,

Create a large files

You may want to create a large dummy sample files on Windows PC for specific requirement. Dummy files of fixed size can be used to test data transfer over network. You can use huge sample files to over-write sensitive data on the hard drive. These can also be used to fill up USB pen drives and prevent malicious content to transfer or execute. On Windows PC, you can use this command method or third party utility programs to create large dummy files of specific sizes.
1. Command line method to create large files, you can easily create dummy file of specific size which do not contain any data using this command.
Fsutil file create new <name of file> <size in bytes>
Following is example to create dummy file of 10MB size in ‘temp’ folder of E drive.
Fsutil file create new e: temptempfile.txt 10000000
2. FileFiller to create huge files (4GB / 80GB)
1. Download file filler program on your Windows (7, Vista, XP, 2000, NT) computer. It is a free utility program of small size (178 kB).




2. Select the dummy file destination path / folder. Also select name for the dummy file being created using this program.
3. Then click to select filling data type for the dummy file among options like NULL (empty), ASCII ordinary value or random data.
4. Enter the size value for the dummy file. It supports up to 4GB for FAT formatted partition and up to 80GB for NTFS partition.
5. Then click GO button to create dummy sample file at specified location on your Windows PC.

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Transfer Images Digital camera to your computer

When you are using a digital camera, then you have needed to transfer the image from camera to your computer.
For image transfer you need to use a USB cable or Memory card. It is too easy to transfer image from camera to your computer.
USB Cable:    The most awkward option for transferring images from a digital camera is to connect the camera to your computer by using a USB cable. The images must then be beamed into the computer from the camera, or the camera may appear as a disk drive in the computer window.
Insert your memory card into the computer: The best way of transferring images from your digital camera is to remove its memory card and plug the card into the PC. Upon plugging in the memory card, you’re greeted by an Auto Play dialog box, as shown in the following figure. When you see the Auto Play dialog box, you need to choose a program to use for transferring the images. You most likely see the options shown in the figure, including perhaps any custom software you’ve installed.
Import Pictures Using Windows: All images are read from the memory card and transferred to the computer’s hard drive. The images are organized and can be viewed by using the Windows Photo Gallery program.
Import Pictures and Videos to My computer: By running a special import wizard, this option gives you the most control over which images are transferred to the computer. It’s available only in versions of Windows Vista that come with the Microsoft Digital Image Starter Edition.
Open Folder to View Files: A Windows Explorer window opens, allowing you to view files stored on the memory card. You can then manually transfer the image files from the memory card to your computer’s hard drive.